The idea of freedom of testation is a core value of South African law and enjoys wide protection. The Maintenance of Surviving Spouses Act, 27 of 1990, was drafted to give a spouse legal recourse if disinherited or negatively affected by the wishes of the testator, or in the case of intestate succession. The goal of this piece of legislation is to ensure a person is not left destitute after the death of their spouse.
Who can claim?
The definition of the Act describes a surviving spouse as follows:
“survivor means the surviving spouse in a marriage dissolved by death.”
What can be claimed?
Section 2(1) of the Act determines as follows:
“If a marriage is dissolved by death after the commencement of this Act the survivor shall have a claim against the estate of the deceased spouse for the provision of her reasonable maintenance needs until her death or remarriage in so far as she is not able to provide therefor from her own means and earnings.
What is the definition of own means?
“own means” include any money or property or other financial benefit accruing to the survivor in terms of the matrimonial property law or the law of succession or otherwise at the death of the deceased spouse.”
What is reasonable maintenance means?
Section 3 of the Act determines as follows:
“Determination of reasonable maintenance needs – In the determination of the reasonable maintenance needs of the survivor, the following factors shall be taken into account in addition to any other factor which should be taken into account:
- The amount of the estate of the deceased spouse available for distribution to heirs and legatees;
- The existing and expected means, earning capacity, financial needs and obligations of the survivor and the subsistence of the marriage; and
- The standard of living of the survivor during the subsistence of the marriage and age at the death of the deceased spouse.”
The executor of the deceased estate has to take the requirements above into account when determining the amount of the claim against the estate.